## Posts

### How Can Quantum Theory Be Interpreted?

Here is a very brief articulation of some of the interpretations of quantum mechanics; I couldn't possibly include all interpretations but I have included the "main" ideas and some other approaches. Although I personally favour the Consistent Histories interpretation this is given in no particular order.

Ghirardi-Rimini-Weber

GRW supplements the Schrodinger equation with a "collapse term" which restricts its evolution, over time. In this approach mass-density (not measurement) induces collapse, each non-relativistic particle is associated with an inbuilt probabilistic tendency to reduce from a wave to a particle and a given time constant $10^{15}s$ the average time it takes after which it will behave as a particle, not a wave. The average time becomes much shorter when particles are entangled and amassed in a group (e.g. a classical system). The probability of collapse to any state is given by the Born rule.
Strengths:
Its been suggested that the break in unitar…
Recent posts

### A Thirty-Year Search for just Two Numbers

Allan Sandage "the Father of Modern Astronomy" at the Carnegie Institution of Science, 2010

In 1926 the astronomer Victor Slipher measured the spectra of light from distant galaxies, in his soon-to-be, revolutionizing work he found that they were almost all shifted to longer wavelength by some amount, $\lambda$. What Slipher had in fact discovered would send tremors across the scientific community, what he noticed was the red shift of galaxies $\Delta \lambda /\lambda =v/c$ but he didn't appreciate yet, what this meant.

Eighteen years earlier, the Harvard astronomer Henrietta Swan Leavitt discovered a relationship between the period of Cephid variable stars and their luminosity which allowed astronomers (like Hubble) to calculate their distance from earth, provided one first knew what period of their evolution they were in.

Edwin Hubble was able to use the relation discovered by Leavitt to calculate the distances of various spiral nebulae (galaxies) which contained Cephi…

### Book Review: A Universe From Nothing

A couple of days ago I was lent a copy of Lawrence Krauss' book "A Universe From Nothing" and having been previously very critical of Krauss, I've decided I couldn't resist writing a review of my immediate thoughts on the book..

Already I'm taken aback by the somewhat ridiculous afterword written by Richard Dawkins when he says that "If On the Origin of Species was biology's deadliest blow to supernaturalism, we may come to see AUniverse From Nothing as the equivalent from cosmology."

Are we really going to compare what was arguably the most crucial publication in the advancement of biology ever in its history, with a book that doesn't propose anything original or new and that dabbles in speculative and untested (possibly untestable) physics? Well I guess we are.

Chapters 2-7

This is the best part of the book, it both recants much of the history of cosmology–from the viewpoint of what Krauss was working on–and some quantum mechanics. This mu…

### Yes, the Problem is Socialism!

Almost every socialist regime has its admirers in the Labour party, Cuba, Nicaragua, Yugoslavia, Romania, even the USSR, at least up until their collapse and then the line is always the same "it wasn't real socialism". Venezuela is hardly an exception; now its reached a point of Armageddon.

It was praised and held up as an alternative to "austerity and cuts" by Jeremy Corbyn, Ken Livingstone, Diane Abbott, John McDonnell, Owen Jones and others. Now poverty has reached over 80 per cent, infant mortality has surged by ten thousand per cent, the minimum wage has fallen by three quarters, the homicide rate is over ten times the global average, inflation is over 900 per cent and the political class is reacting by reverting itself into a dictatorship, yet its the same excuse being trotted out.

"Hitler wasn't a real Christian", "Venezuela isn't real socialism" in the end its the same argument.

Its almost hard to imagine that while sitting …

### Creation Of Universes from Nothing

The above paper "Creation of Universes from Nothing" was published in 1982, which was subsequently followed up in 1984 by a paper titled "Quantum Creation of Universes". I decided it would be a good idea to talk about these proposals, since last time I talked about the Hartle-Hawking model which was, as it turns out, inspired by the above work.
Alexander Vilenkin also explains in a non-technical way the essential idea in his book; Many World's in One – one of the best books I've ever read – it mostly covers cosmic inflationary theory but the 17th chapter covers how inflation may have begun. In fact Vilenkin is one of the main preponderant who helped develop inflation along with Steinhardt, Guth, Hawking, Starobinsky, Linde and others.
Although I won't talk about it here, Vilenkin also discovered a way of doing cosmology by using something called "topological defects" and he has been known for work he's done on cosmic strings, too.
In ex…

### William Lane Craig and the Hartle-Hawking No Boundary Proposal

Classical standard hot Big Bang cosmology represents the universe as beginning from a singular dense point, with no prior description or explanation of classical spacetime. Quantum cosmology is different in that it replaces the initial singularity with a description in accord with some law the "quantum mechanical wave function of the universe", different approaches to quantum cosmology differ in their appeal either to describe the origin of the material content of the universe e.g., Tyron 1973, Linde 1983a, Krauss 2012 or the origin of spacetime itself e.g., Vilenkin 1982, Linde 1983b, Hartle-Hawking 1983, Vilenkin 1984.

These last few proposals by Vilenkin, Hartle-Hawking and others are solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation and exist in a category of proposals called "quantum gravity cosmologies" which make cosmic applications of an approach to quantum gravity called "closed dynamic triangulation" or CDT (also known as Euclidean quantum gravity). I&#…

### Brexit Will Still Be A Success

The result of the UK's election is disappointing but created no mandate for watering down our exit from the European Union, it was secured both by the referendum in June of last year and the triggering of Article 50 in march. Making it not just the will of the Prime Minister but the will of the people and of the UK's democratically elected parliament.

Over 83 per cent of the vote went to 'Hard Brexit' parties, which combined account for over 90 per cent of the seats at Westminster. Brexit is not in doubt; its more sure than ever before and this election has therefore secured an unimpeachable mandate. All parties offering a second referendum, the Green Party, the Liberal Democrats and the SNP lost votes (and in the case of the SNP, lost seats as well).

Theresa May won the election, she'll go on to form a minority government with the aid of the DUP and with my disappointment she didn't receive a resounding endorsement of her Lancaster House Speech. What I think …