### Theresa May is No Liberal but She's Still Better than Jeremy Corbyn

It's a lonely time to be a classical liberal; none of the main parties are offering a truly liberal-Brexit.

All the main parties in Britain support regulations on pay, fixing prices (typically on energy or alcohol), telling businesses who they can place on corporate boards, all are supporting increased spending and further borrowing, (most noticeably on projects like HS2, foreign aid, pensions, winter fuel, defense or health care). All have industrial strategies.

Theresa May has at least some redeeming qualities, her one-in-two-out rule on regulation, her promise for flatter, simpler taxes and her commitment to free trade, to name a few. Jeremy Corbyn is far worse, proposing a dramatic change in how we accept goods and services, erecting barriers to trade and commerce around the world, he's offering full socialism. Nationalisation, tax hikes, sequestration of assets and a currency collapse that could lead to exchange controls.

Classical liberalism has never been cultivated in any of the main political parties in Britain; only a loose alliance gripped the conservatives in the ‘80s with Enoch Powell, Geoffrey Howe, Keith Joseph and ultimately Margaret Thatcher. It never endured long in the party.

In Theresa May’s manifesto for the election, page 9 carried the statement “We do not believe in untrammelled free markets. We reject the cult of selfish individualism.”

Parties which are liberal in this sense, the FDP in Germany, the ACT in New Zealand, Gary Johnson in the United States, don't succeed, ever. Our acquaintance with high office has only been in the comfort of a broader, usually conservative, alliance.

Still, Brexit offers genuine ground for a more liberal open-economy, take one example, in order to sell into the European Union one must adopt the regulatory frame work of an EU member, just as one must adopt Indian regulations on imports to sell into India, US regulation to sell into the United States, Chinese regulations to sell into China and so forth.

Whereas these requirements would ordinarily only apply to the 8 per cent of businesses that sell into the European Union for a third country, as a member state of the EU, the whole EU regulatory frame work applies to our entire domestic market. That includes harmful and menacing regulations on the city of London, the AIFMD, the short-selling ban, the Financial Transactions Tax.

Outside the EU, European countries don't have to worry about these, Norway adopts about 9 per cent of EU legal instruments, Iceland around 10 per cent and Switzerland only repatriates some EU regulation per its own whim—both Norway and Iceland are members of the EEA and all three are members of EFTA—taking, the better of these models, Switzerland, offers a genuinely exciting prospect for the United Kingdom.

Sad to say, those countries which have imposed swinging cuts to regulation, Switzerland, Singapore, New Zealand have been small, though enormously successful but limited to within their own boarders. Coming from the sixth largest economy and we could change the world.

### Set Theory

This post is a very brief introduction to some of the basic concepts of set theory. Set theory is a branch of mathematical-logic, that has wide applications across disciplines. Its not just used in the obvious way of studying the foundations of mathematics by mathematicians but also in physics, social science, and even by philosophers as a theory of semantics for predicate logic (although you can do propositional logic without set theory).

A set is a collection of elements, or members; the notation for a set is specified by listing its components. So the set of even numbers can be represented a
$E: \left \{ 2,4,6,8 ... \right \}$$E: \left \{ x: x > 0 \wedge even\right \}$ Either of these notations is valid. Further, elements of a set can only be in that set, once. So   $E: \left \{ 2,2,2,4,4,6,8 ... \right \} = E: \left \{ 2,4,6,8 ... \right \}$ The notation used to indicate that something is an element of a set, is using the Greek symbol "epsilon". That is: $4 \epsilon S$…

### William Lane Craig and the Hartle-Hawking No Boundary Proposal

Classical standard hot Big Bang cosmology represents the universe as beginning from a singular dense point, with no prior description or explanation of classical spacetime. Quantum cosmology is different in that it replaces the initial singularity with a description in accord with some law the "quantum mechanical wave function of the universe", different approaches to quantum cosmology differ in their appeal either to describe the origin of the material content of the universe e.g., Tyron 1973, Linde 1983a, Krauss 2012 or the origin of spacetime itself e.g., Vilenkin 1982, Linde 1983b, Hartle-Hawking 1983, Vilenkin 1984.

These last few proposals by Vilenkin, Hartle-Hawking and others are solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation and exist in a category of proposals called "quantum gravity cosmologies" which make cosmic applications of an approach to quantum gravity called "closed dynamic triangulation" or CDT (also known as Euclidean quantum gravity). I&#…

### Can inflation be eternal into the past?

Back in 2003 a paper appeared on the arXiv titled "Inflationary spacetimes are not past complete" that was published by Arvind Borde, Alan Guth and Alexander Vilenkin which has had considerable amounts of attention online. The theorem is rather uninteresting but simple and doesn't require a very complicated understanding of math. So I thought I'd explain the result here.

It's purpose is to demonstrate that inflationary models are geodesically incomplete into the past which they take as "synonymous to a beginning" but Vilenkin stresses that the theorem can be extended to non inflationary models so long as the condition of the theorem that the average rate of expansion is never below zero is met. These models too then are incomplete into the past. Consider the metric for an FRW universe with an exponential expansion

Where the scale factor is

Since the eternal inflation model is a "steady state cosmology" the mass density and the Hubble paramet…